Sambo-sachal (Three temples representing three Buddhist treasures)
Koreans call the three temples, Tongdo-sa in Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do, Haein-sa, in Hapcheon,
Gyeongsangnam-do, and Songgwang-sa, in Seungju, Jeollanam-do, ¡°Sambo-sachal¡±,
which means three temples representing three Buddhist treasures:
Buddha, Buddha¡¯s teaching, and the community of Buddhist monks. Tongdo-sa is called ¡°Bulbo-sachal¡±,
which means the temple represent
ing Buddha, since it stores Buddha¡¯s sariras, pearl-like relics remained after Buddha¡¯s cremation.
Haein-sa is called ¡°Beoppo-sachal¡±, which means the temple rep
resenting Buddha¡¯s teaching,
since it stores Korean Tripitaka, a complete collection of Buddhist Scriptures.
Songgwang-sa is called ¡°Seungbo-sachal¡±, which means the temple representing
the community of Buddhist monks, since 16 Buddhist National Masters came forward in succession at it.
Tongdo-sa, ¡°Bulbo-sachal¡±: the temple representing Buddha
Haein-sa, ¡°Beoppo-sachal¡±: the temple representing Buddha¡¯s teaching
Haein-sa was the head temple of Korean Buddhist Hwa-eom
(Ch.Huayan, Jap. Kegon) Order.Having, in addition,
stored Korean Tripitaka, a complete collection of
It has been devotedly believed in by Koreans.
It is because of its storing Korean Tripitaka that
.Koreans call Haein-sa ¡°Beoppo- sachal¡±,
which means the temple representing
Koreans call Korean Tripitaka
¡°Palman-daejanggyeong¡±. ¡°Palman¡± means 80,000 and
yeong¡± means tripitaka.
Korean Tripitaka is called ¡°Palman-daejanggyeong¡± because the number of
its wood blocks on which Buddhist Scriptures are inscribed is 80,000 or
because the number of Buddha¡¯s teaching it delivers is almost 80,000.
Koreans published tripitaka twice in Goryeo dynasty.
The first project for the publication of Korean Tripitaka started in 1011, praying the protection of buddhas and
bodhisattvas from the invasion of the Kitan, a Tungustic people in Manchuria.
Being completed in 1087, the project took as much as 77 years. Being com
pared to other tripitakas published in China at that time,
the first Korean Tripitaka was almost perfect in its contents. Unfortunately, however,
the tripitaka, stored at Buin-sa, at Mt. Palgong, Gyeongsangbuk-do, was burnt down
by the cavalry of the Mongolian, who invaded Korea in 1232.
So Koreans started again the second project for the publication of Korean Tripitaka
in 1236 and completed it in 1251.
| It is the second version of Korean Tripitaka which is now stored at Haein-sa.
Being completed, the second version was at first stored in
Gangwha Island, the best place to preserve it from possible arson
by the cavalry of the Mongolian.
But after a long while to protect it from being stolen by Japanese pirates,
the government of Goryeo dynasty moved it into Jicheon-sa
in Gaeseong, the capital of Goryeo dynasty.
And in 1398 the government of Joseon dynasty finally moved it
into Haein-sa, where it has been stored till now.
The lumber used for the wood blocks of Korean Tripitaka was
cut down from islands near Gangwha, where Korean Tripitaka was made.
Being soaked into seawater for three years, the lumber was
sliced and planed before Buddhist Scriptures are inscribed on it.
Even the calligraphic style of the characters written on the wood blocks,
which were unified into that of Ouyangxun, one of the most famous
Chinese calligraphers, is so beautiful that we can see how devoted
Koreans were to Korean Tripitaka. Koreans are proud of the perfection
in its contents and the great influence it gave on the world history of
publishing and printing.
Haein-sa, one of the most famous holy places in Korea, possesses more than 70 pieces of cultural assets
including several Korean National Treasures and a World Cultural Heritage.
Being located at the mid-slope of Mt. Gaya,Haein-sa commands a mystic view.
Songgwang-sa, "Seungbo-sachal¡±: the temple representing the community of Buddhist monks
Being located at Mt. Jogye, Seungju, Jeollanam-do, Songgwang-sa is called ¡°Seungbo-sachal¡±,
which means the temple representing the community of Buddhist monks.
At the close of Silla dynasty, Seon (Ch. Chan, Jap. Zen) master Hyerin, founded
Gilsang-sa at Mt.Songgwang. It became
It became a huge temple when National Buddhist Master
Jinul, in Goryeo dynasty formed an associa tion for
Buddhist training called "Jeonghye-gyeolsa",
in which "Jeong" means meditation,
¡°hye¡±means wisdom, and "gyeolsa" means an association.
Then the name of this temple was changed from Gilsang-sa
to Songgwang-sa and the name of the mountain
from Mt. Songgwang to Mt. Jogye.
Jinul formed the association ¡°Jeonghye-gyeolsa¡± at
Songgwang-sa to reform the corrupted Buddhism in
After Jinul, 16 National Buddhist Master (including him) came forward in succession at
Songgwang-sa. And in Joseon dynasty Seon master Buhyu, estimated as one of the two greatest monks
with Seon master Seosan at that time, stayed here and promoted Buddhism widely.
And lately the Seon master Hyobong and Gusan also succeeded to the honored tradition.